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《全面建成小康社会:中国人权事业发展的光辉篇章》白皮书(11)(中英对照)

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2. Increasing Protection of the Rights of Women, Children and the Elderly

2.妇女儿童老年人权益保障持续加强

Optimizing laws and policies. Since they were promulgated in the 1990s, the Law on the Protection of Minors, the Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests, and the Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of the Elderly have undergone multiple revisions to better serve their purpose.

法律政策体系日臻完善。中国于20世纪90年代先后制定未成年人保护法、妇女权益保障法、老年人权益保障法,并对三项法律进行多次修改完善。

A series of laws and regulations, including the Law on Maternal and Infant Health Care, the Anti-Domestic Violence Law, the Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, the Special Provisions on Labor Protection for Female Employees, the Provisions on Prohibiting the Use of Child Labor, the Regulations on School Bus Safety Management, and the Special Provisions on the Protection of Juvenile Workers, have been enacted to lay down a legal basis for protecting the rights of women, children and the elderly. The government has issued the Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Mechanism for Evaluating Gender Equality Implications in Laws, Regulations and Policies, to codify and institutionalize the basic national policy of gender equality and promote the all-round development of women.

制定母婴保健法、反家庭暴力法、预防未成年人犯罪法等法律,颁布《女职工劳动保护特别规定》《禁止使用童工规定》《校车安全管理条例》《未成年工特殊保护规定》等行政法规及部门规章,为保障妇女儿童老年人权益奠定了法律基础。印发《关于建立健全法规政策性别平等评估机制的意见》,切实从法规、规章、政策的源头上贯彻男女平等基本国策,促进妇女全面发展。

The Civil Code promulgated in 2020 includes articles regarding the right of habitation, the common debts of spouses, and measures to prevent and stop sexual harassment, further strengthening protection for the three groups. The Chinese government has developed three outlines and plans for the development of women, three for children, and five for the elderly.

2020年颁布民法典,增设居住权,明确夫妻共同债务的范围,增加防止和制止性骚扰等条款,进一步提高了妇女儿童老年人等群体的保护水平。中国政府先后制定实施三个周期的中国妇女发展纲要、中国儿童发展纲要和五个老龄事业发展纲要(规划)。

Empowering women to participate in economic and social affairs. The illiteracy rate of women aged 15 years and above dropped from 20.5 percent in 1979 to 7.3 percent in 2017, and the proportion of female students in junior colleges and universities rose from 24.1 percent in 1978 to 51.7 percent in 2019. More than 40 percent of the employed are women.

妇女经济社会参与能力不断提升。全国15岁及以上女性文盲率由1979年的20.5%降至2017年的7.3%,普通高等学校本专科在校女生占在校生总数的比例由1978年的24.1%提高到2019年的51.7%。全国女性就业人数占全社会就业人数的比重超过四成。2018年修订的农村土地承包法明确规定,农村土地承包,妇女与男子享有平等的权利。

The Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas amended in 2018 stipulates that women enjoy equal rights with men in undertaking land contracts. There were 742 female deputies to the 13th NPC in 2018, accounting for 24.9 percent of the total and 3.7 percentage points higher than the percentage of female deputies to the Sixth NPC in 1983. There were 440 female members in the 13th CPPCC National Committee, representing 20.4 percent of the total and 7.6 percentage points higher than that in the Sixth CPPCC National Committee in 1983.

2018年十三届全国人大代表中有742名妇女代表,占比24.9%,比1983年第六届全国人大提高了3.7个百分点;十三届全国政协委员中有440名女性委员,占比20.4%,比1983年第六届全国政协提高了7.6个百分点。

Improving health care for women and children. In 2020, the rate of prenatal care was 97.4 percent, and the rate of hospital deliveries was 99.9 percent. The government has carried out a program of free cervical and breast cancer checkups for women in rural areas, and brought cervical and breast cancer into the scope of national subsidies for serious illnesses.

妇女儿童健康保障水平进一步提高。2020年,全国孕产妇产前检查率为97.4%,住院分娩率为99.9%。实施农村妇女宫颈癌和乳腺癌免费检查项目,将宫颈癌和乳腺癌纳入国家大病救治范围。

The government has launched the Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas, benefitting 11.2 million children by 2020. Between 1991 and 2020, the mortality rate of children under five decreased from 61 per thousand to 7.5 per thousand.

实施贫困地区儿童营养改善项目,截至2020年,累计1120万儿童从项目中受益。5岁以下儿童死亡率从1991年的61‰下降至2020年的7.5‰。

Providing special care and protection for children. In 2020, there were 29,000 community service centers and 249,000 service stations for children, 360,000 parenting schools, and 320,000 children's activity centers in urban and rural communities. There were 56,000 child welfare supervisors in towns and townships, and 675,000 child welfare directors in villages, forming a strong grassroots force for children's care and protection.

儿童得到特别关爱和特殊保护。2020年,全国有儿童社区服务中心2.9万个,社区服务站24.9万个,城乡社区家长学校36万个,城乡社区儿童之家32万余个。全国乡镇一级配备儿童督导员5.6万名,村一级配备儿童主任67.5万名,基层儿童工作队伍建设和儿童关爱服务水平不断提高。

Greater care and protection have been given to orphans, children with disabilities, rural left-behind children whose parents work in cities, and children in need. The state has strengthened guarantee for the basic needs of orphans. In 2019, the basic living subsidies from special government funds for orphans increased by 50 percent to RMB300, RMB450 and RMB600 per person/month for eastern, central and western regions. At the end of 2020, there were 60,000 orphans in child welfare institutions, with an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,611 per person; there were 134,000 orphans not in care facilities, with an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,184 per person.

进一步加强对孤儿、残疾儿童、农村留守儿童、困境儿童等特殊群体的关爱保护。加大孤儿保障力度。2019年,中央专项资金对孤儿基本生活补助标准提高50%,东、中、西部分别补助300元/月、450元/月和600元/月。截至2020年,全国儿童福利机构集中养育孤儿6万名,基本生活保障月平均标准达1611.3元/人;社会散居孤儿13.4万名,基本社会保障月平均标准达1184.3元/人。

The government issued the Opinions on Further Strengthening Protection of Uncared-for Children, to bring all de facto orphans into the coverage of state support. By 2020, 254,000 uncared-for children were covered by state support, and given an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,184 per person.

印发《关于进一步加强事实无人抚养儿童保障工作的意见》,将事实无人抚养儿童全面纳入制度保障范围。截至2020年,全国共有25.4万名事实无人抚养儿童纳入保障范围,全国平均保障标准达每人每月1184.3元。

The state maintains zero tolerance for crimes against minors. Between 2017 and 2020, prosecuting bodies at all levels approved the arrest of 160,200 people committing crimes against minors, and prosecuted 218,500 people. In judicial procedures, the rights of victimized minors are fully protected by promoting one-stop inquiry and assistance mechanisms integrating evidence collection, psychological counseling, and judicial assistance. By 2020, there were 1,029 one-stop inquiry and assistance sites across the country. More help is provided in different forms to minor victims. In 2019, more than RMB62 million of aid was granted to 4,306 minor victims and their families.

坚持对侵害未成年人犯罪“零容忍”。2017年至2020年,各级检察机关共批准逮捕侵害未成年人犯罪16.02万人,起诉21.85万人。在司法程序中充分保障未成年被害人的合法权利,推行具备取证、心理疏导、司法救助等功能的“一站式”询问、救助机制,截至2020年,全国共建成“一站式”询问、救助办案区1029个。加强未成年被害人多元综合救助,2019年共向4306名未成年被害人及其家庭等发放救助金6200余万元。

Guaranteeing the lives and rights of the elderly. The Chinese government is developing an old-age service network that coordinates home, community and facility care, and combines medical care with health preservation. It has strengthened care and services for left-behind elderly people in rural areas, and adapted home and public environments to make life easier for the elderly. Individual income tax deduction applies to expenses for taking care of elderly family members. The government aims to ensure care, support, recreation, and security for the elderly.

老年人生活和权益保障状况持续改善。中国大力发展养老服务,逐步建立居家社区机构相协调、医养康养相结合的养老服务体系,大力开展农村留守老年人关爱服务,推进老年人家庭适老化改造和老年宜居环境建设,将赡养老人支出纳入个人所得税抵扣范围,努力让老年人老有所养、老有所依、老有所乐、老有所安。

In 2020, the government brought 18.3 million poor elderly people into the scope of subsistence allowances, and covered 3.9 million elderly people living in extreme poverty with government support. Subsidies are ensured at the provincial level nationwide for poor elderly people who cannot perform essential self-care. As of 2020, 30.6 million elderly people enjoyed old-age allowances, 810,000 enjoyed nursing subsidies, and 235,000 enjoyed service subsidies. There were 38,000 care institutions and 280,000 community care facilities for the elderly across the country, with a total of 8.2 million beds.

2020年,国家将1834万困难老年人及时纳入最低生活保障范围,388万老年人纳入特困人员救助供养范围。经济困难的高龄失能等老年人补贴制度实现省级全覆盖。截至2020年,全国享受高龄津贴、护理补贴、服务补贴的老年人分别为3058.9万、81万和23.5万。截至2020年,全国建成各类养老机构3.8万个,社区养老服务机构和设施有28万个,养老床位合计823.8万张。

The State Council has issued policies supporting the provision of both traditional and digital public services to ensure ease of access for elderly people.

国务院办公厅印发文件,强调坚持传统服务方式与智能化服务创新并行,切实解决老年人在运用智能技术方面遇到的困难。

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arrest [ə'rest]

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vt. 逮捕,拘留
n. 逮捕,拘留

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rural ['ru:rəl]

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adj. 农村的

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funds

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n. 基金;资金,现金(fund的复数) v. 提供资金

 
psychological [.saikə'lɔdʒikəl]

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adj. 心理(学)的

 
community [kə'mju:niti]

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n. 社区,社会,团体,共同体,公众,[生]群落

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nutrition [nju:'triʃən]

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n. 营养

 
assistance [ə'sistəns]

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n. 帮助,援助

 
improvement [im'pru:vmənt]

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n. 改进,改善

 
promote [prə'məut]

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vt. 促进,新濠天地棋牌电子:提升,升迁; 发起; 促销

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allowance [ə'lauəns]

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n. 津贴,零用钱,允许,限额,折扣,允差,考虑 <

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